Quantum coherence in enzyme-based cellular signalling networks is a concept that has been researched and developed by Phenoscience Laboratories investigator Jan Walleczek since the 1990s. The original research was conducted at the Bioelectromagnetics Laboratory at Stanford University (1994–2003). The role of nonlinear biochemical reaction networks, including biochemical oscillators, resonators, and amplifiers, was investigated in the possible mediation of quantum-entanglement effects during cellular activities, including redox- and neuro-signalling. Importantly, relatively long-lived quantum-coherent states may exist as a function of spin coherence during radical pair formation in biomolecular systems, even at the warm temperatures that are typical for living systems (Walleczek, 1995).

Quantum-coherent spin states are highly sensitive to magnetic fields. Therefore, the use of static and oscillating magnetic fields was explored as a tool for both identifying and possibly controlling quantum-entangled states during biochemical and living processes (Walleczek, 1995; Eichwald and Walleczek, 1996ab, 1997, 1998; Walleczek, 1999; Walleczek and Eichwald, 2000). This work combined theory development, computer simulation, and laboratory experimentation. As an experimental model system, the self-organizing peroxidase-oxidase oscillator system was employed (Eichwald and Walleczek, 1998; Walleczek and Eichwald, 2000; Carson and Walleczek, 2003; Walleczek, 2000, 2006). The Bioelectromagnetics Laboratory was supported by grants from the US-Department of Energy and the John E. Fetzer Memorial Trust.

Book Publication

Walleczek, J. (Ed.) (2000, 2006) Self-Organized Biological Dynamics and Nonlinear Control: Toward Understanding Complexity, Chaos, and Emergent Function in Living Systems. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom. Read more

Biological Quantum Entanglement Detection with Magnetic Fields

Walleczek, J. (1995) Magnetokinetic Effects on Radical Pairs: A Paradigm for Magnetic Field Interactions with Biological Systems at Lower Than Thermal Energy. ACS Adv. Chem. 250, 395-420. Read more

Eichwald, C. and Walleczek; J. (1996a) Model for magnetic field effects on radical pair recombination in enzyme kinetics. Biophys. J. 71, 623-631. Read more

Eichwald, C. and Walleczek; J. (1996b) Activation-dependent and biphasic electromagnetic field effects: Model based on cooperative enzyme kinetics in cellular signalling. Bioelectromagnetics 17, 427-435. Read more

Eichwald, C. and Walleczek, J. (1997) Low-frequency-dependent effects of oscillating magnetic fields on radical pair recombination in enzyme kinetics. J. Chem. Phys. 107, 4943-4950. Read more

Synopsis: For the quantum-coherent biochemical reaction cycle, the “calculations show that the enzyme behaves like a frequency sensor that is responsive at lower field frequencies but less responsive at frequencies that are faster than the time scales inherent to the kinetic properties of the reaction cycle.”

Eichwald, C. and Walleczek, J. (1998) Magnetic Field Perturbations as a Tool for Controlling Enzyme-regulated and Oscillatory Biochemical Reactions. Biophys. Chem. 74, 209-224. Read more

Walleczek, J. (1999) Low-Frequency-Dependent Magnetic Field Effects in Biological Systems and the Radical Pair Mechanism. In: Electricity and Magnetism in Biology and Medicine (Bersani, F., Ed.) Plenum Press, New York, pp. 363-366. Read more

Walleczek, J. and Eichwald, C. (2000) Enzyme Kinetics and Nonlinear Biochemical Amplification in Response to Oscillating and Static Magnetic Fields. In: Self-organized Biological Dynamics and Nonlinear Control (Walleczek, J. Ed.), Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom, pp. 193-215. Read more

Information Transfer and Oscillatory Control in Emergent Dynamics

Eichwald, C. and Walleczek, J. (1997) Aperiodic Stochastic Resonance With Chaotic Input Signals in Excitable Systems. Phys. Rev. E 55, R6315-6318. Read more

Synopsis: The counter-intuitive finding of noise-enhanced information transfer between two systems is explored. Specifically, the “calculation of dynamic correlation measures shows that the information transfer between the two systems is optimized by intermediate noise levels.”

Carson, J. and Walleczek, J. (2003) Response of the Peroxidase-Oxidase Oscillator to Light Is Controlled by MB+−NADH Photochemistry. J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 8637-8642. Read more